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JUDAISM or HEBREW

Against Apion
An Extract out of Josephus_s Discourse to The Greeks Concerning Hades
Beacon Lights of History Volume II
CHAPTERS ON JEWISH LITERATURE
Children of the Ghetto
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From Plotzk to Boston
Hebraic Literature
Hebrew Life and Times
History of the Jews in Russia and Poland
JEWISH HISTORY
Jewish Literature and Other Essays
Josephus
Judaism by Israel Abrahams
Philo-Judæus of Alexandria
Pictures of Jewish Home-Life Fifty Years Ago 
Pirke Avot 1
Pirke Avot 2
Prolegomena to the Histoy of Israel
Rabbi and Priest
Rashi
Stories of the Prophets
The Antiquities of the Jews
The Book of Delight and Other Papers
The Haskalah Movement in Russia
The International Jewish Cook Book
The Jewish Manual
The Jewish State
The Jews of Barnow
The Legends of the Jews - Volume I
The Legends of the Jews - Volume II
The Legends of the Jews - Volume III
The Legends of the Jews - Volume IV
The Life of Flavius Josephus
The Makers and Teachers of Judaism
The New Jerusalem
The New Land
The Promised Land
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The Wars of the Jews Or The History of the Destruction of Jerusalem
Twelve Studies on The Making of a Nation
Zionism and Anti-Semitism

NEWLY ADDED BOOKS

A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ: Two Divisions in Five Volumes

In the fullness of time the Christian religion sprang out of Judaism; as a fact, indeed, of divine revelation, but also inseparably joined by innumerable threads with the previous thousand years of Israel’s history.

No incident in the gospel story, no word in the preaching of Jesus Christ, is intelligible apart from its setting in Jewish history, and without a clear understanding of that world of thought-distinction of the Jewish people.

A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ
A Letter to Origen from Africanus About the History of Susanna

A fair Hebrew wife named Susanna was falsely accused by lecherous voyeurs. As she bathes in her garden, having sent her attendants away, two elders, having previously said goodbye to each other, bump into each other again when they spy on her bathing. The two men realize they both lust for Susanna. When she makes her way back to her house, they accost her, demanding she have sex with them. When she refuses, they have her arrested, claiming that the reason she sent her maids away was to be alone, as she was having sex with a young man under a tree.

She refuses to be blackmailed and is arrested and about to be put to death for adultery when the young Daniel interrupts the proceedings, shouting that the elders should be questioned to prevent the death of an innocent. After being separated, the two men are cross-examined about details of what they saw, but disagree with the tree under which Susanna supposedly met her lover. In the Greek text, the names of the trees cited by the elders form puns with the sentences given by Daniel. The first says they were under a mastic tree (ὑπο σχίνον, hypo schinon), and Daniel says that an angel stands ready to cut (σχίσει, schisei) him in two. The second says they were under an evergreen oak tree (ὑπο πρίνον, hypo prinon), and Daniel says that an angel stands ready to see (πρίσαι, prisai) him in two. The substantial difference in size between a mastic and an oak makes the elders’ lie plain to all the observers. The false accusers are put to death, and virtue triumphs.

A Letter to Origen from Africanus About the History of Susanna
A letter from Origen to Africanus

Origen to Africanus, a beloved brother in God the Father, through Jesus Christ, His holy Child, greeting. Your letter, from which I learn what you think of the Susanna in the Book of Daniel, which is used in the Churches, although apparently somewhat short, presents in its few words many problems, each of which demands no common treatment, but such as oversteps the character of a letter, and reaches the limits of a discourse. And I, when I consider, as best I can, the measure of my intellect, that I may know myself, am aware that I am wanting in the accuracy necessary to reply to your letter; and that the more, that the few days I have spent in Nicomedia have been far from sufficient to send you an answer to all your demands and queries even after the fashion of the present epistle. Wherefore pardon my little ability, and the little time I had, and read this letter with all indulgence, supplying anything I may omit.

A Letter from Origen to Africanus
Between the Testaments

In most Bibles a single blank page represents the period between the Old and the New Testaments which, perhaps, has symbolic significance.
‘From Malachi to Matthew’ has for long remained vague and unfamiliar to many readers of the Scriptures.
Many mysteries remain, but in recent times I have cast much light on this entire period.
The writings of numbers of scholars have provided exciting new insights and by some remarkable archaeological discoveries.
The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls caught the popular imagination and engaged the attention of worldwide scholarship.
In this small volume I attempted to review these years in the light of recent study and discoveries and in particular to assess the religious contribution made by that rather strange company of men known as ‘the apocalyptists’.
The purpose of this book is selective rather than exhaustive, showing the part which the apocalyptists had to play within the religious development of Judaism and in preparing men’s minds for the coming of Christianity.

BETWEEN THE TESTAMENTS
Allegorical Interpretation, I

Allegorical interpretation of the Bible is an informative approach (exegesis) that presumes that the Bible has numerous degrees of interpretation and tends to concentrate on the divine sense, which consists of the allegorical sense, the moral (or tropological) sense, and the anagogical sense, as opposed to the literal sense. It is sometimes referred to as the quadriga, a reference to the Roman chariot that was drawn by four horses.

Allegorical interpretation has its origins in both Greek thought and the rabbinical schools of Judaism. In the Middle Ages, it was used by Bible commentators of Christianity.

ALLEGORICAL INTERPRETATION, I
Allegorical Interpretation, II

Allegorical interpretation of the Bible is an informative approach (exegesis) that presumes that the Bible has numerous degrees of interpretation and tends to concentrate on the divine sense, which consists of the allegorical sense, the moral (or tropological) sense, and the anagogical sense, as opposed to the literal sense. It is sometimes referred to as the quadriga, a reference to the Roman chariot that was drawn by four horses.

Allegorical interpretation has its origins in both Greek thought and the rabbinical schools of Judaism. In the Middle Ages, it was used by Bible commentators of Christianity.

ALLEGORICAL INTERPRETATION, II
Allegorical Interpretation, III

Allegorical interpretation of the Bible is an informative approach (exegesis) that presumes that the Bible has numerous degrees of interpretation and tends to concentrate on the divine sense, which consists of the allegorical sense, the moral (or tropological) sense, and the anagogical sense, as opposed to the literal sense. It is sometimes referred to as the quadriga, a reference to the Roman chariot that was drawn by four horses.

Allegorical interpretation has its origins in both Greek thought and the rabbinical schools of Judaism. In the Middle Ages, it was used by Bible commentators of Christianity.

ALLEGORICAL INTERPRETATION, III
Eusebius' Chronicle

The Chronicon or Chronicle (Greek: Παντοδαπὴ ἱστορία Pantodape historia, “Universal history“) was a work in two books by Eusebius of Caesarea. It seems to have been compiled in the early 4th century. It contained a world chronicle from Abraham until the vicennalia of Constantine I in A.D. 325. Book 1 contained sets of extracts from earlier writers; book 2 contained a technically innovative list of dates and events in tabular format.

The original Greek text is lost, although substantial quotations exist in later chronographers. Both books are mostly preserved in an Armenian translation. Book 2 is entirely preserved in the Latin translation by Jerome. Portions also exist in quotation in later Syriac writers such as the fragments by James of Edessa and, following him, Michael the Syrian.

Eusebius' Chronicle
Every Good Man is Free

The treatise that the good man is free begins with a reference to its lost companion, That the evil man is a slave, which recalls the preface to the Acts of the Apostles. Its thesis熔ne of the Stoic paradoxe seems to Philo to need some apology, which he bases on the Pythagorean maxim, “Do not walk on beaten tracks.” The true philosopher obeys this oracle and strikes out an alternative path for himself. The unclean may not enter it. That is all who have not tasted education or have tasted it amiss, perverting the beauty of wisdom into the shame of sophistry. Such cherish still the popular notions of wealth and poverty, slavery and nobility, which to the philosopher are simple madness. Blinded in mind, they are slaves of opinion, dependent on the senses whose judgment is always corrupted and unsure. They will submit their bodies to the physician, but never their souls to the wise. Yet so they might unlearn their ignorance and gain also knowledge, man’s peculiar possession. It remains then that all the youth everywhere should dedicate the first-fruits of their prime to education and nothing else, and spend their strength and their age, leaving no part of their lives to be regretted when once they become hierophants of the mysteries.

Every Good Man is Free
From Ezra to the Last of the Maccabees

In this basic introduction to post-biblical Jewish history, the author examines the elements that shaped the Jewish people after their return from the Babylonian Exile in 538 B.C., and transformed them from an insignificant nation into a religious community and major ancient force. They show the process of growth and development as culminating in one of the great historical events of relic: the meeting of Jew and Greek. This confrontation of Mosaic ritual and Hellenic culture, the author shows, had begun indeed before Alexander the Great’s conquest of the Orient in 333 B.C. While struggling to preserve their spiritual heritage, and indeed rebelling against Greek political domination, the Jews, unlike other Mediterranean peoples, assimilated Greek concepts and methods into their native thought. Out of this prolonged contact with a richer and stronger community emerged, one which bore within it the seeds of both Rabbinic Judaism and its inevitable offspring, Christianity.

From Ezra to the Last of the Maccabees by Elias Bickerman
From Sabbath to Sunday

The term Sabbath shows up from a Hebrew phrase subject to other. Before the Resurrection of Jesus Christ, the Sabbath period celebrated God’s time of other after He spent the Creation. It was a warning of the compact between God and His characters. We learn in the textbook of Genesis that God invented the paradises and the earth in six seasons of life, which He appealed times: “And on the seventh period God finished his task which he had passed; and he stretched out on the seventh period from all his task which he had done. And God ordained the seventh period and consecrated it” (Genesis 2:2–3). Now the Sabbath still remembers the Resurrection of Jesus Christ.

From Sabbath To Sunday
Greek in Jewish Palestine

In the present book, the author tries to develop the subject of the relation between the Jewish and non-Jewish cultural spheres in Palestine. This undertaking, I feel, is justified and desirable in view of the opinion to which my very learned colleagues, the Talmudists, persistently adhere that the Rabbis were very little influenced by the outside Hellenistic world.

The book also emphasizes that a new method of research is required in the investigation of Talmudic literature. Halachic discussions are avoided as far as possible (Whenever, in matters of Halacha or Haggada, the phrase “see my remarks ad loc.” Occurs, it refers to — a commentary on the Palestinian Talmud — a commentary on the Tosephta — in order not to overburden the English readers with questions which are familiar only to the Talmudists. The Talmudic and Midrashic material under discussion are confined to the II~IV centuries. Unless otherwise specified all the dates mentioned in this work are C.E. While one of the principal aims of the book is the explanation and the elucidation of Rabbinic texts in the frame of the cultural conditions of the Mediterranean world, light is incidentally shed upon many a Greek and Latin text.

Greek in Jewish Palestine
In Flaccum

Philo's famous account of anti-semitic rioting in Alexandria in A.D. 38, the InFlaccum, has frequently been exploited by scholars interested in the legal status of the Jewish community within the city and the issue of the constitution of Alexandria. This legali ssue lies near the heart of the dispute which leads to some ancient and most modern accounts tracing the roots of the dispute to the Ptolemaic period. It is notable, however, that the first major attested outbreaks of anti-Jewish feeling considerably post-date the Roman conquest, suggestingthat this is a problem of Roman Alexandria with its roots in the Roman administration of the city. Philo also places comparatively little emphasis on legality in the InFlaccum. 

In Flaccum
Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism

In his preface to Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, Scholem blames Jewish philosophers of the Haskalah period, who, because of what he condemned their hatred and indifference of the subject of Kabbalah, allowed the field be all but taken over by “charlatans and idealists”.
Scholem’s chapter on Merkabah mysticism and Jewish gnosticism deals mainly with the magical texts the Lesser Hechalot and the Greater Hechalot,
tracts written and edited between the 2nd and 6th centuries C.E. Scholem also writes on other tracts like Shiur Koma, the Book of Enoch, Sefer Yetzira and the Sefer Habahir.
In the book, Scholem, citing other scholars, observed similarities between the Sefer Yetzirah (Book of Creation) and early Islamic gnosticism.
Scholem finally examines the works of the German Jewish school of Hasidim, and of the works of Abraham Abulafia.
Next, the most detailed investigation in Scholem’s work is on the best known work of Jewish mysticism, the Zohar.
After that, Scholem explores Isaac Luria‘s teachings and the Eastern European Hasidic movement.

Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1)
Narrative of Events Happening in Persia on the Birth of Christ

Many men of learning thus far have been of opinion that the narrative by Africanus of events happening in Persia on Christ’s birth, is a fragment of that famous work which Sextus Julius Africanus, a Christian author of the third century after Christ, composed on the history of the world in the chronological order of events up to the reign of Macrinus, and presented in five books to Alexander, son of Mammaea, with the view of obtaining the restoration of his native town Emmaus.

Narrative of Events Happening in Persia on the Birth of Christ
On Providence (Fragment I)

As stated in the Preface, the fragments from the De Providentia recorded by Eusebius stand on a different footing from the extracts from the Hypothetica, in that not only they but the whole treatise of which they are a part exist in an Armenian version. It comprises two books, both cast at any rate originally as a dialogue between Philo, who maintains the belief that the world is governed by Providence and one Alexander, who puts forth his doubts and difficulties. This Alexander may be taken with fair certainty to be Philo’s nephew Alexander Tiberius, who afterwards apostatized from Judaism.

As Eusebius’s extracts are all drawn from the second book, we need not trouble with the much shorter first book. It will be enough to record Wendland’s verdict without accepting it entirely. It amounts to this. It has been worked over by a clumsy hand which has destroyed the interlocutory setting and torn the thoughts away from their essential order; it includes two large Christian interpolations, but otherwise is genuinely Philonic. The second book, which is twice the length, has no such difficulties. The dialogue is clearly maintained throughout. There is nothing which suggests interpolation and the parallelism both of thought and language, at any rate in the part of which the original is preserved by Eusebius, gives overwhelming evidence of its genuineness. This is true of the first part of the second fragment. It is very remarkable, therefore, that it is more devoid of traces of Judaism than even the Quod Omn. Prob. and the De Aet. There are no allusions to the O.T., and no mention of Moses; the one and only fact which suggests that the writer is a Jew is the personal allusion to his visit to Jerusalem via Ascalon (§ 64). This has naturally raised doubts in the minds of critics who have not made themselves thoroughly familiar with Philo’s thoughts and diction, but Wendland’s a searching analysis and collection of the parallels can hardly cannot carry conviction to the most sceptical, and even without this any fairly careful reader of Philo will constantly feel, as he goes through the Greek of the De Providentia, that he has seen something like this before though he cannot exactly say where it is to be found.

ON PROVIDENCE (Fragment I)
On Providence (Fragment II)

As stated in the Preface, the fragments from the De Providentia recorded by Eusebius stand on a different footing from the extracts from the Hypothetica, in that not only they but the whole treatise of which they are a part exist in an Armenian version. It comprises two books, both cast at any rate originally as a dialogue between Philo, who maintains the belief that the world is governed by Providence and one Alexander, who puts forth his doubts and difficulties. This Alexander may be taken with fair certainty to be Philo’s nephew Alexander Tiberius, who afterwards apostatized from Judaism.

As Eusebius’s extracts are all drawn from the second book, we need not trouble with the much shorter first book. It will be enough to record Wendland’s verdict without accepting it entirely. It amounts to this. It has been worked over by a clumsy hand which has destroyed the interlocutory setting and torn the thoughts away from their essential order; it includes two large Christian interpolations, but otherwise is genuinely Philonic. The second book, which is twice the length, has no such difficulties. The dialogue is clearly maintained throughout. There is nothing which suggests interpolation and the parallelism both of thought and language, at any rate in the part of which the original is preserved by Eusebius, gives overwhelming evidence of its genuineness. This is true of the first part of the second fragment. It is very remarkable, therefore, that it is more devoid of traces of Judaism than even the Quod Omn. Prob. and the De Aet. There are no allusions to the O.T., and no mention of Moses; the one and only fact which suggests that the writer is a Jew is the personal allusion to his visit to Jerusalem via Ascalon (§ 64). This has naturally raised doubts in the minds of critics who have not made themselves thoroughly familiar with Philo’s thoughts and diction, but Wendland’s a searching analysis and collection of the parallels can hardly cannot carry conviction to the most sceptical, and even without this any fairly careful reader of Philo will constantly feel, as he goes through the Greek of the De Providentia, that he has seen something like this before though he cannot exactly say where it is to be found.

ON PROVIDENCE (Fragment II)
On the Eternity of the World

Among the works of Philo, this is certainly the one whose genuineness can be most reasonably doubted. It is not mentioned in Eusebius’s list, and the only external evidence for it so far as I know is that it has always been included in the Philonian corpus. The internal evidence, the resemblance to Philo’s style and language, has been dealt with by Cumont, and though certainly strong, particularly when we remember how different the subject-matter is from that of the rest, it is not I think as overwhelming as with the De Vita Contemplativa. In fact, while if that work came before us as of unknown authorship I should without hesitation set it down as Philo’s, I should not feel the same certainty about the De Aeternitate.

On the Eternity of the World
On the Kabbalah and its Symbolism Judaism and Mysticism

In On the Kabbalah and Its Symbolism, Gershom Scholem steers the reader through the essential matters in the complex account of the Kabbalah, clearing up the relationships between mysticism and made religious authority, the mystics’ interpretation of the Torah and their undertakes to explore the concealed meaning underlying Scripture, the tension between the philosophical and the mystical theories of God, and the symbolism applied in mystical religion.

On the Kabbalah and its Symbolism
On the Life of Moses, II

On the Life of Moses is broken down into two volumes: the first one is a kind of rewriting of the scriptural accounts ascribed to Moses, from his childhood to the war against Balak and the circumstances predating the conquest of the Promised Land. Moses shows as a royal character, whereas in Volume Two, he is portrayed by Philo as a lawmaker, a great priest and a prophet. The passage under consideration here is at the beginning of Book Two and comprises a demonstration of Moses’s superiority as lawgiver (nomothetēs) over those of other nations. Philo could not be more affirmative: Moses is “the most admirable of all the lawgivers who have ever lived in any country either among the Greeks or among the barbarians”

On the Life of Moses, II
PRAEPARATIO EVANGELICA (Preparation for the Gospel)

Preparation for the Gospel (Greek: Εὐαγγελικὴ προπαρασκευή, Euangelikē proparaskeuē), commonly known by its Latin title Praeparatio evangelica, was a piece of Christian apologetics written by Eusebius in the early part of the fourth century AD. It was established about the date 313, and attempts to prove the excellence of Christianity over pagan religions and philosophies. It was dedicated to Bishop Theodotus of Laodicea.

PRAEPARATIO EVANGELICA
Questions and Answers on Genesis, I

“The Zητηματα και λυσεις, Quaestiones et solutiones, which first became more widely known through the publication of Aucher from the Armenian, are a comparatively brief catechetical explanation of the Pentateuch in the form of questions and answers. It is not easy to ascertain how far they extended. In the time of Eusebius, they were extant for only Genesis and Exodus (H. E. ii. 18. 1 and 5) and such other traces as may be regarded as certain extend only to these two books. The explanation of Genesis comprised probably six books, at all events only so much can be certainly pointed out from the quotations.

Questions and Answers on Genesis, I
Questions and Answers on Genesis, II

“The Zητηματα και λυσεις, Quaestiones et solutiones, which first became more widely known through the publication of Aucher from the Armenian, are a comparatively brief catechetical explanation of the Pentateuch in the form of questions and answers. It is not easy to ascertain how far they extended. In the time of Eusebius, they were extant for only Genesis and Exodus (H. E. ii. 18. 1 and 5) and such other traces as may be regarded as certain extend only to these two books. The explanation of Genesis comprised probably six books, at all events only so much can be certainly pointed out from the quotations.

Questions and Answers on Genesis, II
Questions and Answers on Genesis, III

“The Zητηματα και λυσεις, Quaestiones et solutiones, which first became more widely known through the publication of Aucher from the Armenian, are a comparatively brief catechetical explanation of the Pentateuch in the form of questions and answers. It is not easy to ascertain how far they extended. In the time of Eusebius, they were extant for only Genesis and Exodus (H. E. ii. 18. 1 and 5) and such other traces as may be regarded as certain extend only to these two books. The explanation of Genesis comprised probably six books, at all events only so much can be certainly pointed out from the quotations.

Questions and Answers on Genesis, III
Septuagint - Codex Sinaiticus

Codex Sinaiticus “Sinai Bible” is one of the four major uncial codices, ancient, handwritten copies of a sacred writing in Greek. The codex is a historical treasure.

The Codex Sinaiticus perceived to the eye of scholars within the 19th century at Saint Catherine’s Monastery in the Sinai Peninsula, with further material discovered within the 20th and 21st centuries. Although parts of the codex are scattered across four libraries round the world, most of the manuscript is held today within the British Library in London, where it's on public display.Since its discovery, study of the Codex Sinaiticus has proven to be useful to scholars for critical studies of biblical text.

Septuagint Codex Sinaiticus
Tanakh

The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh is the canonical compilation of Hebrew scriptures. These passages are almost only in Biblical Hebrew, with a few passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the works of Daniel and Ezra, the verse Jeremiah 10:11, and some particular words). The set up of this passage that is truthful for Rabbinic Judaism is known as the Masoretic Text (MT) and consists of 24 books, and is sorted and numbered using Perek and pasokim whereas Protestant Bibles divide essentially the same information into 39 books. Catholic Bibles and Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bibles have additional materials in their Old Testaments, derived from the Septuagint (texts translated into Koine Greek) and other sources.

In addition to the Masoretic Text, current scholars searching to understand the history of the Hebrew Bible use a range of sources. These include the Septuagint, the Syriac language Peshitta translation, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Dead Sea Scrolls collection and quotations from Rabbinic manuscripts. These sources may be older than the Masoretic Text in some situations and usually contradict from it. These differences have given rise to the theory that yet another text, an Urtext of the Hebrew Bible, previously existed and is the source of the versions extant today. However, such an Urtext has never been discovered, and which of the three commonly known versions (Septuagint, Masoretic Text, Samaritan Pentateuch) is closest to the Urtext is debated.

The Tanakh
The Biblical Antiquities of Philo

The Biblical Antiquities of Philo (also called ‘Pseudo-Philo’) is a piece that was associated with the Jewish author Philo Judaeus. However, it is considered by scholars that this is not the case. The work itself comprises a retelling of the Hebrew Bible (from Genesis to the end of 1 Samuel), depicting Biblical account from Adam to Saul.

The Biblical Antiquities of Philo
The Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran and the Concept of a Library

The Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran and also the Concept of a Library presents twelve articles by prominent experts within the Dead Sea Scrolls and Qumran studies. These articles explore from different angles the question of whether or not the gathering of manuscripts found within the eleven caves within the vicinity of Khirbet Qumran may be characterized as a “library,” and, if so, what the relation of that library is to the ruins of Qumran and also the group of Jews that inhabited them. The essays make up the subsequent categories: the gathering as a full, subcollections within the corpus, and therefore the implications of identifying the Qumran collection as a library.

The Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran and the Concept of a Library
The Doctrine and Literature of the Kabalah

Arthur Edward Waite (1857–1942), mystic and historian, was an influential figure in the occult revival of the nineteenth century. Brought up a devout Catholic, he became increasingly involved in spiritualism in his late teens attending the death of his sister. Choosing not to enter the priesthood, he pursued instead his activities in occult philosophy. A linguist and editor of several synthetic ideas in the 1890s, Waite also wrote several histories of magic in his later years. First printed in 1902, the present work establishes Kabbalah’s powerful influence on nineteenth-century occultism. The book chronicles the history of Cabalist practice from its ancient Hebrew origins to its enforcement on other branches of the occult, including Rosicrucianism, freemasonry, hermeticism and tarot. Waite also connects noted occultists to Kabbalah, including Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, Paracelsus and Eliphas Levi.

The Doctrine and Literature of the Kabalah
The Doctrine of the Ether in the Kabbalah

George Margoliouth was a learned Biblical and Oriental scholar and writer for the British Museum, where he was in charge of the Hebrew, Syrian and Ethiopic manuscripts. According to his article, ether appears in the Kabbalah where it is recorded that the primordial ether and the primordial light were basically one. Separation came when the ether condensed out to serve as the means, out of which the galaxies began. Formerly published in The Jewish Quarterly Review, Volume 20. Loaded and acted readily accessible to the community by JSTOR.

The Doctrine of the Ether in the Kabbalah
The Epistle to Aristides

A very famous letter to Aristides. In which he endeavoured to reconcile the apparent discrepancies In the genealogies of Christ given by Matthew and Luke. A letter to Origen. In which he endeavoured to prove that the story of Susanna in Daniel was a forgery. A translation of this letter has been given with the Works of Origen. The Acts of Symphorosa and her Seven Sonsare attributed in the MSS. to Africanus: but no ancient writer speaks of him as the author of this work.

The Epistle to Aristides
The Extant Fragments of the Five Books of Chronography

Modern march on Christian chronography was inaugurated 400 years ago by Joseph Justus Scaliger with his magisterial Thesaurus sentporusn (1606). The work drew scholars’ attention to the author of the first Christian chronicle, lulius Africanus (314 cent.), a writer who effectively transformed the heritage of Hellenistic universal historiography by adapting it to a Christian framework. Although Africanus work is lost in its entirety, the preserved fragments—including those of the Cali. his second main work—reveal a multifaceted and broad-based intellectual, writing in an era rich in culture and change.

The Extant Fragments of the Five Books of the Chronography
The Guide of Perplexed of Maimonides

The Guide for the Perplexed is a creation of theology by Maimonides. It offers to reconcile Aristotelianism with Rabbinical Jewish theology by identifying rational justifications for many things in the text.

The Guide of the Perplexed of Maimonides
The Kabbalah or The Religious Philosophy of the Hebrews

The Kabbalah’s history and esoteric qualities are demystified and explained by Adolph Franck, a philosopher and scholar of ancient Jewish texts.

With origins dating back thousands of years, the Kabbalistic texts are a cornerstone of Judaist tradition. They explain the relationship between God, humanity, the Earth, and the very Creation itself. For many centuries, Kabbalist scholars employed the lore as a means of explaining difficult passages in the Hebrew Bible and other ancient texts. However the Kabbalah itself evolved with time; an important component of it is the Zohar, a book whose origins are considered by scholars to be potentially as late as the 13th century AD.

Beginning in the Renaissance, elements of the Zohar’s doctrine were even adopted by Christian thinkers. As Franck explains, its influences can be felt in religions and philosophical belief systems elsewhere. Frequent reinterpretations and complex philosophical discussions give the Kabbalah aspects of continuous history, reflective of the changes in society such as the Renaissance. The author devotes entire chapters to the Kabbalist views on the human soul, the physically manifest world, and the divine nature of God, his analysis informed by a wide breadth of sources plus many years of personal researches and scholarship on Judaism.

The Kabbalah or The Religious Philosophy of the Hebrews
The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic 200 BC - Ad 100

Only a master teacher could look at such a close yet penetrating thought as this of the Jewish prophetic literature from 200BC to AD100.
Russell reviews 17 Jewish subjects: The Set up of Daniel, I-II Enoch, The Book of Jubilees, The Sibylline Oracles, Books III~V, The Testaments of the 12 Patriarchs, The Psalms of Solomon, The Assumption of Moses, The Persecution of Isaiah, The Way of man of Adam & Eve or The Apocalypse of Moses, The Apocalypse of Abraham, The Testament of Abraham, 2 Esdras & II-III Baruch. He has material from the Flat Sea Scrolls & a wide range of similar information. For Jews & Christians likewise, this information is of influence because of its need to be ‘the offspring of revelation.’ For Christians it takes an additional effect. Not merely is it, in its direction, an extension of the Old Testament,
it’s still a joy of their New Testament. The prophetic literature helps unite the chasm between testaments & illustrates significant results in theological knowledge, chiefly of an eschatological & messianic kind. For easy study & character,
the number is in three parts. Part One, ‘The Structure & Character of Jewish Apocalyptic,’ sets the story against the education of the age in which they created it & defines apocalyptic drama.
Part Two, plates ‘The Method of Jewish Apocalyptic,’ having its development from revelation, checks its work & literary styles, & considers the personal attitude of the poets. Part Three not only discusses ‘The Word of Jewish Apocalyptic,’
but judges it, testifying to the change of the apocalyptists on subsequent religious views in both Judaism & Christianity.

The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic 200 BC - Ad 100 by David Syme Russell
The Passion of St. Symphorosa and Her Seven Sons

"The widow Symphorosa, with her seven sons, wounds us day by day in invoking her God. If she therefore, together with her sons, shall offer sacrifice, we promise to make good all that you ask." Then Adrian ordered her to be seized, along with her sons, and advised them in courteous terms to consent to consent to offer sacrifice to the idols. To him, however, the blessed Symphorosa answered: "My husband Getulius,(3) together with his brother Amantius, when they were tribunes in thy service, suffered different punishments for the name of Christ, rather than consent to sacrifice to idols. and, like good athletes, they overcame thy demons in death. For, rather than be prevailed on, they chose to be beheaded, and suffered death: which death, being endured for the name of Christ, gained them temporal ignominy indeed among men of this earth, but everlasting honor and glory among the angels.

The Passion of St. Symphorosa and Her Seven Sons
The Oath of Maimonides

The Oath of Maimonides is a historic oath for pharmacists and physicians attributed to Maimonides. It is not to be distracted with the more lengthy Prayer of Maimonides.

The Oath of Maimonides
The Prayer of Maimonides

The “The Prayer of Maimonides” is attributed to Maimonides, and was written by Marcus Herz, a German physician, student of Immanual Kant, and physician to Moses Mendelssohn. It first came out in print in about 1793.

The Prayer Of Maimonides
The Testimonium Flavianum

The Testimonium Flavianum interpreting the statement of Flavius Josephus is a passage found in Book 18, Chapter 3, 3 or see Greek text of the Antiquities which describes the condemnation and crucifixion of Jesus at the hands of the Roman authorities. The Testimonium is probably the most discussed passage in Josephus.

The Testimoniunm Flavianum
Torah

The Torah is comprised of five books, which give us with a complete narrative, from creation to the death of Moses on the banks of the Jordan River. The search of the relation between history and the narratives of the Torah is compound. While the Torah speaks of historical places and historical figures, we have no archaeological or other textual evidence of the precise circumstances.

The Torah, also perceived as the Pentateuch (from the Greek for “five books”), is the early compilation of passages in the Hebrew Bible. It deals with the roots of not only the Israelites but also the entire world. Yet traditionally the Hebrew word torah has been transcribed into English as “law” because of its transcription in the Septuagint (the Greek translations of the Hebrew Bible) as nomos (law), it is better interpreted and translated as “teaching” or “instruction.” The Torah rises from a long process of editing (or redaction, as scholars call it). This means that there is no one can be point to as the date of composition. Most scholars consider that the final significant modifications took place after 539 BCE when Cyrus the Great conquered the Neo-Babylonian Empire. The Torah was, and remains to be, the central set of sacred texts (scriptures) for Judaism because of its focus on the proper ways (ritually, ethically, theologically, etc.) For the tribes of Israel to live, though how exactly one is to live out the Torah was, and remains to be, a complicated issue.

Torah